Energy Efficiency - Building Material
In most parts of India, glass should be used in architectural facades to allow the entry of light but prevent the entry of heat. This can be achieved by glass glazing and by using the appropriate type of glass. Glasses can be laminated or tinted to prevent the inflow of often both heat and light. Insulated glass units (double or triple paned with air or some other gas between the panes) allow for thermal insulation. Glasses can be coated to alter their spectral reflective and absorptive properties. Low e glass is manufactured by the deposition of multiple layers of highly specialized nano-metric metallic oxides/nitrides to improve the solar control and thermal insulation properties.
Roofs can be made energy efficient by design (use of vaulted roofs) or by the use of appropriate material. Roofs can be insulated by material (for example polyurethane board or precast hollow terracotta) on the under-deck or the over-deck. Roofs can also be insulated by the use of air cavities. The reflectivity of the roof surface can also be increased by the use of mosaic tiles or by the use of appropriate paint. The use of this technique should be carefully used if there is a plan to use solar rooftop technology.
Walls can be made more energy efficient by using various type of material. Walls can be made of concrete blocks, hollow concrete blocks or autoclaved aerated concrete blocks. Walls can also be insulated by using double walls. Natural minerals such as vermiculite can also be used to improve the insulation properties of walls. Wall thickness can also vary depending on the incidence of solar radiation.
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